Turkish Neurosurgery 2019 , Vol 29 , Num 1
Gamma Knife Radiosurgery for Hemorrhagic Brainstem Cavernomas
1Kocaeli State Hospital, Radiation Oncology Clinic, Izmit, Turkey
2Acibadem University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiation Oncology, Istanbul, Turkey
3Koc University Hospital, Department of Neurosurgery, Istanbul, Turkey
DOI : 10.5137/1019-5149.JTN.21690-17.1 AIM: To assess treatment results of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKRS) for hemorrhagic brainstem cavernous malformations (BSCMs).

MATERIAL and METHODS: A retrospective review of patients with hemorrhagic BSCMs, who were treated at the Acıbadem Kozyatagi Hospital GKRS unit from May 2007 to October 2015 was performed.

RESULTS: In total, 82 patients were identified. All patients had experienced at least one hemorrhagic event (range 1-3), and all of them presented with radiological evidence of hemorrhage. The median target volume was 0.3 ml, and the median marginal radiation dose was 12 Gy. The mean durations before and after surgery were 25.5 (range 1-204) months, and 50.3 (range 13-113) months, respectively. Pre-treatment hemorrhage rates were calculated from the date of first hemorrhage to the date of radiosurgery. There were 97 bleeds over 174.4 patient-years during the observation period, with an annual hemorrhage rate of 55.7%. If the first bleed is excluded, the annual hemorrhage rate was 8.6%. Only three patients demonstrated re-bleeding, which occurred at 3, 12 and 79 months after radiosurgery. Over a total follow up time of 344 patient-years the annual re-bleeding rate was therefore 0.87%, indicating that the risk of BSCM hemorrhage was significantly decreased by radiosurgery.

CONCLUSION: GKRS was a safe and effective treatment for symptomatic low volume BSCMs when a low marginal dose is used. A randomized controlled trial is needed that compares GKRS to observation if we want to establish the true efficacy of this treatment. Keywords : Brainstem, Cavernoma, Gamma?knife, Radiosurgery

Corresponding author : Selcuk PEKER, peker@selcukpeker.com